|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 39-42
Comparison of the patient state index and bispectral index in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing ketamine infusion therapy: Case series
Ki Hwa Lee, Sang Eun Lee
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan, South Korea
|Date of Submission||14-Oct-2022|
|Date of Decision||01-Dec-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||08-Dec-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||6-Mar-2023|
Ki Hwa Lee
Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, 875, Haeundae-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
It is important for clinicians to perform a continuous comprehensive assessment of the depth of sedation, including the use of processed electroencephalographic monitors and the review of clinical signs. Ketamine is a safe anesthetic and sedative traditionally used in the clinical practice. It possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant activities and is used as a therapeutic agent in intractable pain. In this case series, we present a comparison between patient state index (PSI) and bispectral index (BIS) in a sample of eight patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing ketamine infusion therapy. Blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and oxygen saturation were all noted, as well as the PSI and BIS values. The PSI and BIS readings were not recorded when the artifact was larger than 50%. Four patients (50%) received intravenous midazolam 5 mg when their agitation or movement could not be managed by the clinicians’ verbal instructions. In five patients (62%), 20 min after the ketamine infusion began, deep drowsiness was attained. There are fewer research studies on PSI than there are on BIS. We found that PSI values did not match BIS values. This case series could help clinicians select an appropriate course of action for ketamine sedation in individual patients.
Keywords: Complex regional pain syndromes, electroencephalography, ketamine
|How to cite this article:|
Lee KH, Lee SE. Comparison of the patient state index and bispectral index in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing ketamine infusion therapy: Case series. Bali J Anaesthesiol 2023;7:39-42
|How to cite this URL:|
Lee KH, Lee SE. Comparison of the patient state index and bispectral index in patients with complex regional pain syndrome undergoing ketamine infusion therapy: Case series. Bali J Anaesthesiol [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Mar 21];7:39-42. Available from: https://www.bjoaonline.com/text.asp?2023/7/1/39/371177
| Introduction|| |
Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonists traditionally used as a safe anesthetic and sedative in the clinical practice. In addition to its anesthetic effects, ketamine possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antidepressant activities. Currently, ketamine is used not only for anesthetic purposes but also for treating patients with intractable pain such as those with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and refractory depression.
Three expert societies—the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists—recommend an intravenous dose of ketamine of 0.5–2 mg/kg/h for chronic pain, with higher doses providing more benefit. Transient cardiorespiratory and neuropsychiatric adverse events have been observed in patients who receive a subanesthetic dose of ketamine infusion therapy. The coadministration of benzodiazepines to mitigate psychomimetic symptoms may increase the risk of respiratory depression during ketamine infusion. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to monitor the depth of sedation and to prepare for adverse events.
Bolus administration of ketamine significantly increases bispectral index (BIS) values compared with continuous infusion of ketamine when using BIS to monitor the depth of anesthesia. The index values from processed electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring remain constant during the continuous infusion of ketamine. As the depth of sedation progresses, respiratory and cardiovascular adverse effects are more likely to occur. Hence, it is important to carefully monitor the depth of sedation. The BIS and patient state index (PSI) devices are widely used in our institution. There is a paucity of studies comparing PSI and BIS in CRPS patients undergoing ketamine infusion therapy.
| Case Series|| |
Eight CRPS patients who underwent ketamine infusion therapy between February and April, 2018, were included in this case series. The data collection was approved by the local institutional review board (HPIRB 2022-09-020). The patients’ demographic and clinical details are shown in [Table 1]. Intravenous glycopyrrolate 0.2 mg and palonosetron 0.075 mg were administered to the patients before starting ketamine infusion in the operating room. The total dose of ketamine was 500–750 mg during approximately 2 h (112 ± 10.5 min). The values of PSI and BIS, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and oxygen saturation were recorded. When the artifact was greater than 50%, the PSI and BIS values were not recorded. Intravenous midazolam 5 mg was administered to four patients (50%) when agitation or movement was not controlled by verbal instructions from the clinicians. We recorded the time for achieving a Ramsay sedation score (RSS) of −4 (deep sedation). Deep sedation was achieved in five patients (62%) 20 min after the start of ketamine infusion.
The comparison of BIS and PSI values is shown in [Table 2]. PSI values were higher than BIS values at 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after the start of ketamine infusion. Hypertension and hypotension were defined as an increase and decrease of more than 20% from the baseline systolic blood pressure, respectively. Tachycardia was also defined as an increase of more than 20% from the baseline heart rate. Intravenous labetalol 5 mg or nicardipine 0.5 mg was administered to the patients at the discretion of the clinicians. Supportive care such as nasal airway insertion or oxygen supply was performed when oxygen saturation decreased below 94%.
Hypertension occurred in three patients, hypotension in one patient, and tachycardia in six patients. Oxygen desaturation was observed in two patients because of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and narrow jaw. Oxygen desaturation was treated with supportive care.
| Discussion|| |
In this case series, BIS and PSI values were compared with eight CRPS patients receiving ketamine infusion therapy. The PSI values remained in the 80s, but BIS values showed more variation. The BIS index was lower than the PSI index from 30 min to 60 min after the start of ketamine infusion.
Each processed EEG monitor provides index values through its algorithm. For example, the BIS utilizes an algorithm based on power spectral analysis, bispectral analysis, and burst suppression, whereas the PSI is calculated by a four-channel EEG with an algorithm that introduces high heterogeneity of variance. Even with the same depth of sedation using the same sedatives, the displayed index values of processed EEG monitors are different. For example, the PSI values were lower than the BIS values by ~10–15 points at high propofol concentrations. In another study, a calculated cut-off PSI value of 58 was found to be lower than a calculated cut-off BIS value of 67. Although PSI was launched on the market after BIS, its effectiveness has been proven in several anesthetic agents.,,
CRPS is a chronic neurological condition with an unclear etiology characterized by autonomic, motor, and sensory disturbances. The postulated mechanisms for the pathophysiology of CRPS include central sensitization, alterations in the innervation of the affected limb, sympathoafferent coupling, inflammatory changes, cortical plasticity, and contribution of genetic and emotional factors. Because of its unique mechanisms and potential to blunt central sensitization, ketamine may theoretically prevent the development of chronic postsurgical pain. In a randomized controlled trial comparing prolonged low-dose ketamine infusion with placebo, a significant decrease in pain scores persisted for up to 12 weeks in the ketamine group (P < 0.001). Another double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial using repeated prolonged low-dose ketamine infusions (0.35 mg/kg/h for 4 h during 10 days) demonstrated varying degrees of pain relief. However, there is little consensus on the best way to administer ketamine for CRPS.
Subanesthetic doses of ketamine are favorable because of its short half-life and low risk of clinically significant respiratory depression. At low doses, ketamine produces a dissociative state characterized by hallucinations, altered sensory perception, and analgesia, whereas at higher doses, it induces a state of unconsciousness appropriate for general anesthesia. The ideal dose of subanesthetic ketamine is 0.1–0.3 mg/kg as a bolus and 0.1–0.3 mg/kg/h as an infusion. When low-dose ketamine is infused, the index of EEG does not increase differently from bolus injection probably because the serum concentration does not change significantly. Stubhaug et al. studied a low-dose ketamine protocol consisting of an initial bolus of 0.5 mg/kg followed by a 72-h continuous infusion (first 24 h at 2 µg/kg/min followed by 48 h at 1 µg/kg/min) and measured serum concentrations of ketamine and norketamine at 1, 24, and 72 h. Their results suggest that after 72 h, the serum concentrations of ketamine are still below those observed at 1 h following a 0.5 mg/kg bolus. Further, an intravenous induction dose (1–2 mg/kg) of ketamine causes a rapid loss of consciousness that typically lasts for approximately 10 min. Akeju et al. found that ketamine anesthesia-induced unconsciousness was associated with coherent theta oscillations. EEG patterns, such as gamma bursts (consisting of gamma oscillations alternating with slow oscillations), were observed.
Ketamine is highly lipid soluble and has a large volume of distribution. The context-sensitive half-time of ketamine is similar to that of propofol. The concentration of ketamine and inactive norketamine rapidly declines upon the termination of ketamine infusion. Procedural sedation is frequently performed in spontaneously breathing patients, but hypnotics and opioids decrease respiratory drive and put the upper airways at the risk of collapse. The cardiorespiratory and neuropsychiatric adverse events are mostly transient, but particular attention should be paid to airway obstruction when coadministered with midazolam to reduce psychomimetic effects. Nausea, vomiting, and psychomimetic symptoms (nystagmus and double vision) occur more frequently in ketamine infusion patients. The administration of ketamine has been associated with hypersalivation, and hence we pretreated our patients with an anticholinergic agent. In addition, ketamine is a scheduled agent with abuse potential, making its long-term use challenging and mandating further research.
| Conclusions|| |
Although the BIS and PSI values did not match during ketamine infusion, this case series could help clinicians determine an appropriate course of action and give each patient the best safe sedation of ketamine. Clinicians have to look at the clinical symptoms as well. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the ability of PSI and BIS to determine the depth of sedation in ketamine infusion therapy.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Sigtermans MJ, van Hilten JJ, Bauer MCR, Arbous SM, Marinus J, Sartonet EY, et al
. Ketamine produces effective and long-term pain relief in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Pain 2009;145:304-11.
Iqbal SZ, Mathew SJ Ketamine for depression clinical issues. Adv Pharmacol 2020;89:131-62.
Cohen SP, Bhatia A, Buvanendran A, Schwenk ES, Wasan AD, Hurley RW, et al
. Consensus guidelines on the use of intravenous ketamine infusions for chronic pain from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2018;43:521-46.
Gorlin AW, Rosenfeld DM, Ramakrishna H Intravenous sub-anesthetic ketamine for perioperative analgesia. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2016;32:160-7.
Carrara L, Nault M, Morisson L, Godin N, Idrissi M, Fortier A, et al
. The impact of bolus versus continuous infusion of intravenous ketamine on bispectral index variations and desflurane administration during major surgery: The KETABIS study. Eur J Anaesthesiol2021;38:1168-79.
Ramsay MA, Savege TM, Simpson BR, Goodwin R Controlled sedation with alphaxalone-alphadolone. Br Med J 1974;2:656-9.
Fahy BG, Chau DF The technology of processed electroencephalogram monitoring devices for assessment of depth of anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2018;126:111-7.
Soehle M, Kuech M, Grube M, Wirz S, Kreuer S, Hoeft A, et al
. Patient state index vs bispectral index as measures of the electroencephalographic effects of propofol. Br J Anaesth 2010;105:172-8.
Kasuya Y, Govinda R, Rauch S, Mascha EJ, Sessler DI, Turan A The correlation between bispectral index and observational sedation scale in volunteers sedated with dexmedetomidine and propofol. Anesth Analg 2009;109:1811-5.
Bruehl S An update on the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome. Anesthesiology 2010;113:713-25.
Schwartzman RJ, Alexander GM, Grothusen JR The use of ketamine in complex regional pain syndrome: Possible mechanisms. Expert Rev Neurother 2011;11:719-34.
Stubhaug A, Breivik H, Eide PK, Kreunen M, Foss A Mapping of punctuate hyperalgesia around a surgical incision demonstrates that ketamine is a powerful suppressor of central sensitization to pain following surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997;41:1124-32.
White PF, Schüttler J, Shafer A, Stanski DR, Horai Y, Trevor AJ Comparative pharmacology of the ketamine isomers. Studies in volunteers. Br J Anaesth 1985;57:197-203.
Akeju O, Song AH, Hamilos AE, Pavone KJ, Flores FJ, Brown EN, et al
. Electroencephalogram signatures of ketamine anesthesia-induced unconsciousness. Clin Neurophysiol 2016;127: 2414-22.
[Table 1], [Table 2]